Month: April 2017

Peptide Function In The Human Body

Peptides, such as those in ghrp 6 is a molecule formed of two or more amino acids. If a number of amino acids are still below 50 molecules called peptides, but if more than 50 molecules called proteins. Amino acids linked to each other by peptide bonds. Peptide bonds occur if one of the nitrogen atoms in the amino acid binds to the carboxyl group of another amino acid. Peptide present in every living being and a role in several biochemical activities. Peptides can be enzymes, hormones, antibiotics, and receptors.

The shortest peptide is a dipeptide, which is composed of two amino acids joined by peptide bonds single. There is also a tripeptide, tetrapeptides, pentapeptides, etc. A peptide having the amino end and the carboxyl terminus. A polypeptide is a single linear chain of amino acids bound together by peptide bonds. A protein molecule consists of one or more polypeptides are assembled and normally functioning biological and sometimes have groups of non-peptide attached, which can be called a prosthetic group or cofactor.

All the animals of the universe have peptides in their bodies in different ways, so that the peptide is one of the construction blocks of life. Proteins and peptides serve many possibilities, and many molecular biologists spent years researching the function of single peptides and proteins to learn more about how the body works.

Peptides can make a variety of uses in a person body, depending on which amino acids are involved. Some able to manage hormones, for example, while others take part in the function of antibiotics. Our bodies are also equipped to break down and reuse the peptide. If a person eats meat, enzymes in / intestine break down the protein in an amide bond to create a wide variety of peptides that can be digested or removed, depending on the needs of the body.

How the major classification Peptide?

– Milk peptide: They are formed from milk proteins by an enzymatic reaction that is broken down by digestive enzymes or by proteinase formed by the lactobacilli during fermentation of milk. Some milk peptides have proven to have an antihypertensive effect in animals and in clinical studies.

– Ribosomal peptide: is synthesised by translation of mRNA. It serves typically in higher organisms, such as hormones and signalling molecules. Some organisms produce peptide antibiotics.

– Non-ribosomal: This peptide is assembled by enzymes that are precise to each other peptide, rather than by the ribosome. Glutathione is the most general non-ribosomal peptide, which is a component of the antioxidant defences of the most aerobic organisms. Non-ribosomal peptide synthesis is another non-ribosomal peptides that most common in unicellular organisms, fungi and plants and are synthesised by modular enzyme complex.

Peptide And Protein Differences

Amino acids, peptides (such as in ghrp 6), and proteins are often referred to as the terms are interrelated, but they are different in their characteristics. Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. Amino acids are small molecules that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), which is attached to the central carbon atom, with the addition of hydrogen and a side chain (R group). The side chains vary among all of the amino acids; because it determines the unique character and chemistry of each amino acid. Specific gene sequences that are used to determine the sequence of amino acids in both peptides and proteins.

– Peptides

Peptides are made with two or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds and are present as a linear chain. The length of the peptide is determined by the number of amino acids in it. Usually, the peptide length is less than about 100 amino acids. The main function of the majority of peptides is to enable effective communication with the biochemical messages from one place to another in the body.

– Protein

Proteins are the most diverse group of biological macromolecules. A protein consisting of one or more long branched chains called polypeptides and protein constituents of the previous is an amino acid. The sequence of amino acids determines the main characteristics of the protein, while the amino acid sequence is defined by a specific gene sequence.

What makes Peptides and Proteins different?

– While proteins are very long chains of amino acids, peptides are short linear chain of amino acids.

– Some amino acids are linked together to form a peptide by peptide bonds, while some of the peptides are linked together to form protein molecules.

– Normally, the protein has a stable three-dimensional structure. Instead, peptides are not arranged in a stable three-dimensional structure.

– The length of the peptide is less than about 100 amino acids, whereas proteins are more than 100 amino acids. (There are exceptions, relying on more differences in molecular function, rather than their size)

– Unlike peptides, proteins are considered as macromolecules.

– In the peptides, the amino acid side chains only form hydrogen bonds. In fact, protein, not only the side chain but also the group of peptides, forming hydrogen bonds. This hydrogen bond can with water or with a group of other peptides.

– All the peptides present in a linear chain and protein can exist as a primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

Types Of Peptides And Functions

Peptides such as in ghrp 6 are short chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds and have a defined sequence. Peptide function primarily as a signalling molecule in animals or as antibiotics in some lower organisms. Peptides are great polypeptide chains comprising up to 50 amino acids which can be classified by function and also by synthesis.

Some common types of peptides are classified by functions including hormones, neuropeptides, and alkaloids. When classified by synthesis, peptides can ribosomes, nonribosomal, and peptonic. The classification system peptide considered an imperfect science as one of the peptides can belong to multiple groups simultaneously and scientists continue to argue as to be classified as a protein peptide, or protein peptides.

Many scientists agree that the peptide does not fit easily into a certain pattern, while the protein is more clearly the nature of the adjustment. Here are the types of peptides and their functions.

– Hormones

Hormones, one of the most common classifications of the peptide in the human body, is a special messenger molecule used in cellular communication. Hormones are identified as such because they are issued and synthesised by a special team of cells, called endocrine glands.

– Neuropeptides

Neuropeptides are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous system and the body has a specific excitatory and inhibitory function. Neuropeptides work in much the same way as neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. One of the most famous classes of neuropeptides endorphins. Endorphins are considered as endogenous painkillers of the body, often compared to morphine drugs.

– Alkaloids

Alkaloids are peptides that are generally used in the expansion of defence mechanisms on the type of  plants, small animals such as clams and fungi. Ergotamine and dynorphin is a kind of peptide alkaloids.

– Antibiotics

Antibiotics are peptides that stop the growth of microorganisms in the body. They are often used in the treatment to kill disease-causing bacteria.